By the aquisition of knowledge, rather than material possessions, an Aborigine attains status in Aboriginal culture. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms in to which they changed at the end of the Dreamtime or Dreaming , as the stories tell. The first Governor had good intentions of reconciling with the original inhabitants. However, in 1770, the Australian Aboriginal s culture and way of life dramatically changed when Lieutenant James Cook took possession of the east coast of Australia and named it New South Wales. Jane McDonald, Author provided This single fossil has changed the nature of the megafauna extinction debate aboriginal dating. We found numerous specimens, but these were often isolated bones sitting on eroded surfaces aboriginal dating. It is always possible that earlier evidence for the First Australians in that landscape will be found in the future. It is this art work we call Aboriginal Art which documents all these historical events because this long isolated People have never had a written language of their own. Zygomaturus trilobus was a large lumbering wombat-like marsupial, the size of a very large bull. Traditional Aboriginal society is structured by systems which organises all aspects of Aboriginal life and perceptions. The Europeans spread epidemic diseases such as chickenpox, smallpox, influenza and measles. One way of testing the various extinction models is by looking for megafauna in landscapes that show continuous Aboriginal occupation over the past 50,000 years. Were they, for example, critical in the management of certain habitats, just as the megafauna of Africa are today. One Aboriginal protest group declared Australia Day (the celebration of the day Captain Cook landed in Botany Bay) to be a Day of Mourning in 1938. The dreamtime stories explain how the land was created by the journeys of the spirit ancestors. The combination of disease, loss of land and direct violence culled the Aboriginal population by an estimated 90% between 1788 and 1900.
But the hypothesis for Genyornis‘ extinction has come under significant criticism due to the emergence of counter evidence. They formed clan groups /tribes living in a defined area and were limited to the foods available in those areas. In spite of the good intentions the clash of the two cultures was to have a lasting detrimental effect on the Aboriginals history. Indeed the species seems to have existed up to the period where the climate began to change dramatically, known as the last glacial cycle leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum. They could not travel without permission and could not vote or own property unless they renounced their culture and cut family ties. All Australian Aborigines shared an intimate understanding of, and relationship with, the land. In Aboriginal History settlement mainly occurred in the south around the rivers and more fertile areas. The ideology of the clan system is based on a patrilineal descent with the male and female off-spring belonging to the clan of the father, which is a clan of opposite moiety to their mother. A dating game Critical to understanding when the megafauna became extinct is dating, and ideally, the application of multiple dating techniques will provide the finest resolution. There is still a great deal to learn about Australia’s ancient megafauna. Ancestor Spirits came to Earth in human and other forms and the land, the plants and animals were given their form as we know them today. It was thought that these culturally backward people needed protection. There are very few localities like this but one exception in Australia is the Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, in New South Wales. By dating the fossil directly with U-series we arrive at a minimum age estimate. In isolation they lived in this way for thousands of years. Children and their families were actively discouraged from contact with one another after separation.
The Aboriginal Flag was also gaining popularity with other Aboriginal rights movements such as the tent city embassy in Canberra. Those creation stories describing the contact and features which the spiritual ancestors left on the land are integral to Aboriginal spirituality. Australia was also moving away from its white Australia policy that favored predominately European settlement.. As Australia became more multi-cultural, it was seen that the differing groups could integrate into the country while still retaining their beliefs and cultures. The History of Aboriginals in Western Australia bares witness to these events. Despite great advances in the available scientific techniques for investigating the problem, answering the key question of how they became extinct has remained elusive. The lower jaw can be seen on display at Mungo National Park. Elizabeth Morgan House provides a range of support to Aboriginal women and children experiencing family violence from crisis through to recovery programs. In Australia today the indigenous population are beset with alcohol and drug abuse, suicide, domestic violence, with educational and health outcomes that are far below that of other Australians. A groundbreaking fossil find – in the museum After much field work spread over a number of years we had very little luck in finding in situ fossils. In the far North, the Maccassans from Makassar and Celebes came south to collect Trepang, sea cucumber. The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person s Dreaming. The National Inquiry was conducted by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission in an attempt to assess the damaging effects national policies had on Aborigines. We can now abandon the rapid/over kill hypothesis and start to untangle how climate may have played a role, or how changes in Aboriginal population numbers may have impacted on the ecology of the megafauna. The population was more stable in the areas with more food, more nomadic in areas like the desert where food and water were hard to find and in short supply. More careful analysis of the record often reveals a very different picture.